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Influenza vaccination is less effective in elderly as compared to young

Influenza vaccination is less effective in elderly as compared to young individuals. are responsible for almost 200,000 estimated hospitalizations and 35,000 deaths each year in the United States and the elderly account for 90% of these 35,000 [6]. Vaccines against influenza require annual reformulation due to continuous viral evolution (antigenic drift and shift) which allows Trichostatin-A not only new human but also non-human influenza viruses to infect human beings. Annual influenza vaccinations help individuals to make protective antibodies specific for the currently circulating strains [7,8]. The influenza vaccine induces an antiviral response in B and T cells, resulting in humoral and cellular immunity, respectively [9]. The antibody response to the vaccine is the first line of protection from subsequent infection. An essential step in the generation of vaccine-induced antibody-secreting cells is the interaction of vaccine-specific B cells and T follicular helper cells (Tfh), to generate B cell proliferation, class switch recombination (CSR) and somatic hypermutation (SHM) [10]. It has been shown that some elderly individuals can still be infected with influenza even if they routinely receive the vaccine. This often leads to secondary complications, hospitalization, physical debilitation and ultimately death [11,12,13], likely due to a compromized immune system Trichostatin-A in these individuals. The fact that influenza vaccines also prevent complications from influenza (e.g. pneumonia) in most seniors strongly helps vaccination campaigns targeted to improve immune functions in these vulnerable individuals as will also be backed herein. Current influenza vaccination campaigns are able to reduce hospitalization to some extent [14], but rates of hospitalizations due to influenza-related disease are still very high [15]. The effects of influenza vaccination are different in individuals of different age groups [16,17,18,19,20] and this depends on age-related variations in the innate and adaptive immune systems. These variations include a decrease in natural killer cell cytotoxicity on a per cell basis [21], a decrease in both figures and function of dendritic cells in blood [22,23], a decrease in T cell function [24,25,26] and manifestation of CD28 [27], an increase in cytomegalovirus (CMV) seropositivity [28,29,30,31], and a decrease in B cell figures and function [9,28,32,33,34,35], such as reduced CSR and SHM, leading to reduced generation of protecting antibodies [35,36,37,38]. With this review we will summarize results on the effects of ageing on influenza vaccine-specific B cell reactions in healthy individuals as well as with individuals with Type-2 Diabetes (T2D), HIV and cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Influenza vaccine-specific antibody reactions in individuals of different age Healthy individuals Ageing significantly decreases the influenza vaccine-specific antibody response in healthy individuals once we [36,37,38] as well as others have shown [9,17,39,40]. Most of the studies conducted so far have shown that this correlates with the well characterized age-dependent decrease in T cell [26,41,42] and dendritic cell [23] function. For T cells in particular, a shift with ageing toward an anti-inflammatory response characterized by IL-10 production and decreased IFN-:IL-10 percentage in influenza-stimulated lymphocytes offers been shown to be associated with reduced cytolytic capacity of CD8+ T cells which obvious influenza computer virus from infected lungs [43]. However, we have demonstrated that age-related intrinsic B cell problems also happen in blood and Trichostatin-A these contribute to decreased vaccine response. These include decreases in class switch recombination (CSR), the process that generates protecting antibodies and memory space B cells; decreases in the manifestation of the enzyme, activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID), the transcription element E47, which contributes to AID regulation; and decreased percentages of switched memory space B cells (CD19+CD27+IgD-) before and after vaccination as compared with younger individuals. We have measured the antibody response to the influenza vaccine in sera (in vivo response) and have associated this with the B cell response after vaccination to the vaccine in vitro. In vivo and in Rabbit Polyclonal to IL15RA. vitro B cell reactions have been measured respectively by hemagglutination inhibition assay (HAI) and by AID mRNA manifestation by qPCR after B cell restimulation. AID is a measure of CSR and of B.