We currently encounter an alarming resurgence in infectious diseases characterized by antimicrobial resistance and therapeutic failure. a panel of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and tropical parasites of the genus even inside the infected macrophages. Consequently UCNII prevented SNT-207707 mortality caused by polymicrobial sepsis and ameliorated pathological indicators of cutaneous leishmaniasis. Besides its presence in body physical and mucosal barriers we found that innate immune cells produce UCNII in response to infections. Therefore UCNII could be considered as an ancient highly-conserved host peptide involved in the natural antimicrobial defense and emerge as a stylish alternative to current treatments for microbial disorders with associated drug-resistances. genus. The killing activity of UCNII was exerted through a selective binding to the surface of the pathogens and targeting of critical structures SNT-207707 for microbes. Moreover UCNII acts as a true HDP released by immune cells in response to contamination. Finally we exhibited the SNT-207707 therapeutic application of UCNII in experimental models of sepsis and cutaneous leishmaniasis. In summary we identify a new role for UCNII as an endogenous component of the immune innate defense system. Physique 1 UCNII but not UCNI disrupts the bacterial membrane and is a potent antibacterial factor MATERIALS AND METHODS Peptides UCNI and UCNII were purchased from American Peptide. Fragments derived from the original sequence of UCNII (UCNII1-38 UCNII1-17 UCNII18-38 UCNII1-26 and UCNII27-38) and FITC-labeled UCNII were designed by our group and chemically synthesized by GeneScript. Peptides were in the beginning dissolved at 10?4 M (final pH 2.5) in ultrapure water (Bio-Rad) under sterile conditions and then dissolved in PBS (1.2 mM KH2PO4 8.1 mM Na2HPO4 130 mM NaCl 2.6 mM KCl pH 7.0) or the corresponding culture medium (final pH 7.4) at the indicated concentrations before their use. Pathogens and growth conditions Top10 (Invitrogen Carlsbad CA) and K-12 mutants deficient in LPS synthesis (Genetic Stock Center Yale University or college New Haven CT) were cultured under shaking in Luria Broth medium at 37°C. (CECT 479) (CECT 243) and (CECT 318) all obtained from the Spanish Center for Type SNT-207707 Culture SNT-207707 Collection (CECT) were produced under shaking in brain heart infusion broth (Difco Laboratory Detroit MI) at 37°C in Nutrient I at 30°C and in Nutrient II at 26°C respectively. (MHOM/IL/80/Friedlin) (24) phosphoglycan-deficient (25) (Rho/SU/59/P) and (MHOM/ET/67/HU3) promastigotes were cultured at 28°C in M-199 medium (Invitrogen) supplemented with 40 mM HEPES 100 μM adenosine 0.77 μM hemin 10 μM biopterin and 10% FBS. Promastigotes of (MHOM/ES/1993/BCN-99) 656 cl (MHOM/Is usually/1998/LRC) and (MHOM/VE/1990/M9012) were cultured in altered RPMI-1640 medium (Invitrogen) supplemented with 20% FBS at 28°C (and promastigotes we used the Alamar blue reagent (Sigma) as explained (26). Briefly parasites were harvested at late exponential phase and incubated in 96-well plates (100 μl/well 2.5 × 105 cells/ml) with UCNI UCNII or UCNII-derived fragments (12 μM unless indicated) at specified growth temperatures. Peptides were also added at 24 hr of culture. Where indicated we adjusted the pH of culture media to pH 6.0 or pH 8.0. After 72 hr of incubation Alamar Blue (0.11 mg/ml 20 μl/well) was added to cultures for 4 hr and solubilized with 100 μl of 3% SDS. Cell viability was assayed using a fluorescent plate reader (550 nm excitation 590 nm emission). Determination of changes in plasma membrane potential and permeabilization We used bisoxonol (Molecular Probes) a potential-sensitive anionic dye that increases Rabbit Polyclonal to MMP-11. fluorescence after its insertion into the depolarized membrane to monitor changes in plasma membrane potential. (5 × 106) were cultured in 100 μl PBS at 37°C for 1 hr in the absence or presence of 10 μM UCNII and log-phase promastigotes (2 × 106) were cultured in 100 μl HPMI buffer (20 mM HEPES 132 mM NaCl 3.5 mM KCl 0.5 mM MgCl2 5 mM glucose 1 mM CaCl2 pH 7.4) in the absence or presence of 12 μM UCNII for different time periods at 28°C. Then bacteria and parasites were incubated with 0.025 μM bisoxonol for 10 min at room temperature. Fluorescence adjustments were monitored utilizing a fluorescent SNT-207707 dish audience (544 nm excitation 584 nm emission). We utilized heated.