The purpose of this study was to determine the frequency of (genetic screening was completed in patients being seen in a neurobehavioral or AD clinics. Clinic at the University of Colorado and the Rush Alzheimer Disease Center Memory Clinic supplied patients and controls and a third group the Religious Orders Study supplied older persons with and without dementia. Primarily spousal controls with a mental status examination score >28/30 were recruited from the same clinics and from movement disorders clinics at each university. Genotyping of CGG repeat length in was performed using a PCR assay previously described or with a recently developed highly sensitive PCR method (Asuragen Inc. Austin TX). Results Clinic-Based Cases and Controls: There APY29 was no APY29 difference between cases and controls in the frequency of premutation expansions (1/151 cases vs. 2/177 controls p=1) or gray zone expansions (10/151 cases vs. 7/177 controls p=0.28). Religious Rabbit Polyclonal to TBC1D3. Orders Study: There were no premutation carriers in any of the groups: controls MCI or AD. There was no difference in the APY29 frequency of gray zone expansions between normal controls (3/136 2.2%) MCI (4/64 6.2%) and AD (3/68 4.4%; p=0.29). Discussion These results suggest that the frequency of expansions is not more common in individuals presenting with memory complaints or AD compared to controls. Only a few studies have evaluated the prevalence of cognitive disorders in association with a expansion. A case series reported three of five female premutation carriers with dementia or cognitive decline showing pathological changes consistent with AD in addition to intraneuronal inclusions typically seen in FXTAS (Tassone et al. 2012 A second study reported genotyping 95 individuals with a Huntington disease phenotype who had normal huntingtin gene testing and found only one premutation carrier (Rodriguez-Revenga et al. 2008 There is an activity-dependent regulatory relationship between the fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) and amyloid precursor protein (APP) which when cleaved is a major component of cerebral amyloid plaques found in AD (Sokol et al. 2011 This relationship is mediated by metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5) signaling. In the knockout mouse model (>200 CGG repeats); there is loss of FMRP high basal levels of APP and absence of activity-dependent regulation of APP levels. 11 In expansion carriers with less than 200 CGG repeats FMRP levels remain normal to low normal APY29 and any effect on APP would be more subtle. This may explain why we did not see an association between premutation expansions and clinically diagnosed or APY29 autopsy confirmed AD cases. Based on our results we conclude that premutation size repeat expansions are not a genetic risk factor for AD but that a larger sample size may be warranted to definitively exclude an association with gray zone expansions. Supplementary Material 1 here to view.(43K docx) Acknowlegements This study was funded by the NINDS K23NS052487 (D.H.) and NIA P30AG10161 and R01AG15819 (D.B.). Footnotes Publisher’s Disclaimer: This is a PDF file of an unedited manuscript that has been accepted for publication. APY29 As a service to our customers we are providing this early version of the manuscript. The manuscript will undergo copyediting typesetting and review of the resulting proof before it is published in its final citable form. Please note that during the production process errors may be discovered which could affect the content and all legal disclaimers that apply to the journal pertain. Disclosure Statement: There are no potential conflicts of interest for any author related to the research in this.