Background The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) have established guidelines that outline Methoxsalen (Oxsoralen) patients who are considered “high risk” for complications following CEA for which CAS may provide benefit. absence of Methoxsalen (Oxsoralen) high risk factors were collected. Patients were stratified using symptom status and high risk status as variables and 30-day adverse events (stroke death and/or myocardial infarction (MI)) were compared. Results 271 patients underwent CAS with 30-day complication rates of stroke (3.0%) death (1.1%) MI (1.5%) stroke/death (3.7%) and stroke/death/MI (5.2%). 830 patients underwent CEA with 30-day complication rates of stroke (2.0%) death (0.1%) MI (0.6%) stroke/death (1.9%) and stroke/death/MI (2.7%). Among symptomatic patients physiologic high risk status was associated with increased stroke/death (6/42 14.3% vs. 2/74 2.7% P<0.01) Methoxsalen (Oxsoralen) and anatomic high risk status was associated with a trend towards increased stroke/death (5/31 16.1% vs. 0/20 0.0% P=0.14) in patients who underwent CAS compared to CEA. Analysis of asymptomatic patients showed no differences among the two groups overall except for a trend towards higher rate of MI following CAS compared to CEA (3/71 4.2% vs. 0/108 0.0% P=.06) in those who were physiologically high risk. Among symptomatic patients who underwent CAS patients with physiologic and anatomic high risk factors had a higher rate of stroke/death compared to non-high risk patients (6/42 14.3% vs. 0/24 0.0% and 5/31 16.1% vs. 0/24 0.0% respectively both P≤.05) Conclusions Physiologic high risk status was associated with increased stroke/death while anatomic high risk status showed a trend towards increased stroke/death in symptomatic patients undergoing CAS compared to non-high risk patients undergoing CAS or physiologically high risk patients undergoing CEA. Our results suggest that the current national criteria for carotid artery stenting overestimates its efficacy in patients who are symptomatic and high risk. INTRODUCTION Carotid endarterectomy (CEA) has been established as the gold Methoxsalen (Oxsoralen) standard treatment for reducing the risk of stroke in patients with severe Methoxsalen (Oxsoralen) carotid artery stenosis1-4. More recently carotid artery stenting (CAS) has become an accepted treatment alternative in those considered high risk for complications following CEA. Using data from previous registries the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) have established and reaffirmed guidelines regarding the use of CAS as approved Rabbit Polyclonal to HLA-DOB. reimbursement coverage criteria5. These criteria outline patients who are considered “high risk” for complications following CEA for which CAS may provide benefit. However data from subsequent studies has led to questions regarding the validity of these high risk criteria6-9. We have found that studies known to date have stratified data according to high risk status or symptom status but not both. Therefore we hypothesized that a two-tiered stratification approach that include high risk and symptom status will further delineate a subset of patients in which CEA or CAS will confer reduced risk. In an attempt to improve patient selection for the treatment of carotid artery disease we performed a chart review of all patients who underwent either CAS or CEA at our tertiary medical center from 2005 to 2010 stratified them according to CMS high risk criteria and symptom status and examined their Methoxsalen (Oxsoralen) 30-day outcomes. METHODS Patients A non-randomized retrospective cohort study was performed by chart review of all patients undergoing CEA or CAS from January 1 2005 to December 31 2010 at our institution. The Vascular Registry a national carotid procedures registry maintained by the Society for Vascular Surgery (SVS) was used to identify all patients undergoing CEA or CAS. Additionally the hospital database was searched using ICD-9-CM (International Classification of Diseases 9 Revision Clinical Modification) diagnosis and procedure codes (CAS: 00.63 CEA: 38.12) to identify cases performed prior to joining the SVS registry and to confirm that all cases were entered into the SVS Vascular Registry. Data Acquisition Demographic data and other data outlined by the CMS guidelines were obtained. These data included symptom status degree of stenosis specific physiologic or anatomic risk factors deemed high risk for CEA per CMS guidelines5 and adverse outcomes within 30 days of the.