Parvin is a putative F-actin binding protein very important to integrin-mediated cell adhesion. at the cellular level in several tissues and to investigate the tissue-specific suppression or enhancement of these defects by specific genes. Materials and Methods Genetics and Stocks All transgenic strains encoding and its mutated forms were previously described . Recombinant lines of with were generated by standard meiotic recombination. In the eye modifier screen virgin females of were crossed with males of the tested strain from three different categories: (1) UAS lines expressing specific genes; (2) UAS::IR (RNAi-lines) derived 20-HETE either from the VDRC or the NIG collection; and (3) deficiencies included in the deficiency kit for the third chromosome derived from Bloomington. The following stocks were used: (M. Hoch); (A. Manoukian and T. Xu); (S. Noselli); (T. Millard) and (Bloomington); (N. Brown). drivers were obtained from Bloomington. All crosses were performed at 25°C. Immunohistochemistry and Confocal Microscopy Eye and wing discs were dissected from third-instar larvae or 75% pupae and fixed according to standard protocols  . Primary antibodies were against: active caspase-3 (1∶250 Cell Signaling); active JNK (1∶500 Cell Signaling); MMP1 (1∶50 mix in 1∶1∶1 of 5H7B11/3A6B4/3B8D12 DSHB); βPS-integrin (1∶10 CF.6G11 DSHB); Ena (1∶50 5 DSHB); Cadherin (1∶50 DCAD2 DSHB); Rho1 (1∶50 p1D9 DSHB); LamininA (1∶500 ) and Dia (1∶250 20-HETE provided by S. Wasserman UCSD USA). F-actin was labelled using either rhodamine or Alexa-Fluor-633 phalloidin (Molecular Probes). Secondary antibodies were used at a 20-HETE dilution of 1∶500 and were conjugated to Alexa-Fluor-488 -568 or -633 (Molecular Probes). Nuclei were labelled with DAPI. Images were obtained with a Leica SP5 confocal microscope using the 20X/0.7NA objective or an oil 63X/1.4 NA objective. Leica SP5 software was used for quantitative analysis of the immunolabelled tissues. The compared images were acquired with identical settings of laser power gain and iris while avoiding saturation of pixel intensity. Selected areas were outlined and the total intensity was measured and plotted using Excel. Images from adult eyes were obtained using either a Leica DFC500 cooled CCD camera or a Leica TCS LSI system. All images were assembled in Photoshop 7 and labelled in Corel Draw 12. Results Parvin Overexpression during Development Causes Morphogenetic Defects In mammalian cells α-Parvin has an anti-apoptotic function whereas β-Parvin promotes apoptosis  . We followed a gain-of function approach utilizing the system  to overexpress Parvin in several tissues during development (Table 1). We focused mainly around the wing epithelium and the eye using and drivers. Overexpression of Parvin by resulted in several abnormal developmental defects including loss of thoracic bristles dysplasia in legs loss of arista and ocellar bristles in the head whereas a fraction of flies died during pupae development (Physique 1A′-C′). Parvin overexpression driven by caused a rough eye phenotype (Physique 1D′). Finally induction of Parvin expression with mostly caused lethality while the surviving flies had wing defects (Physique 2L2 L3). Travel morphogenesis was not interrupted by comparable levels of overexpression of several domain name deletion UAS::Parvin-GFP constructs (Table 2) suggesting that combinatorial interactions of Parvin domains are required to elicit a lethal effect and that only high levels of full-length Parvin are detrimental for the whole organism. Physique 1 Overexpression of Parvin results in morphogenetic defects at various tissues 20-HETE in the adult travel. Table 1 Gal4 drivers used to direct expression of Mouse monoclonal to ABCG2 during development. Table 2 Truncated forms of expressed with specific drivers did not affect tissue morphogenesis. Physique 2 Parvin overexpression induces apoptosis and activation of JNK signaling. Parvin Overexpression in the Wing Epithelium Leads to Apoptosis and 20-HETE Activation of the JNK Pathway The morphogenetic defects caused by Parvin-GFP overexpression driven by suggested a pro-apoptotic function for Parvin in wing discs (Physique 2A A′) or those expressing 20-HETE a CH2-domain name deletion Parvin mutant fused to GFP (UAS::ParvinΔCH2-GFP) (Physique.