Sleep supports the formation of a variety of declarative and non-declarative

Sleep supports the formation of a variety of declarative and non-declarative remembrances and sleep deprivation often impairs these types of remembrances. deprivation negatively impacts subsequent motor and reversal learning and memory. paw by placing the pellet in the indentation reverse to the one the mouse had been trained on. On day 12 a training session with the non-preferred paw occurred between ZT 4 and ZT 5. Immediately after this mice experienced conditions of either sleep deprivation via gentle handling or ad libitum sleep for 5 hours. For those mice that SB590885 were allowed to sleep ad libitum estimations of total sleep were made by direct observation. An initial immediate 10-minute screening session occurred between ZT 9 and ZT 10 (T5). On day 13 a delayed 10-minute testing session occurred between ZT 4 and ZT 5 (T24). Each 10-minute screening session was recorded with a digital video camcorder (Sony). Primary overall performance metrics recorded were gain in total success rate (i.e. number successfully consumed pellets per total number of reaches) and portion of non-preferred paw reaches (i.e. quantity of reaches with the non-preferred paw per total number of reaches). 2.4 Water Y-Maze Reversal Task A slightly modified version of the water Y-maze reversal task previously explained was utilized (Hoeffer et al. 2008 Mice were habituated to the maze for 15 minutes on day 1 and then returned to their home cage. On day 2 the mice were trained to locate a submerged escape platform (in a pool of obscured water) in either arm of a Y-shaped maze (simple SB590885 always right or always left arm pattern) for 20 trials. The mice were returned to their home cages after day two of training. On Day 3 the mice were tested to determine whether they achieved an escape success criterion of 4/5 correct. For mice that achieved this criterion the escape arm was reversed on day 4. Mice experienced two initial opportunities to find the new escape location before undergoing a period of 5 hours of either ad libitum sleep or sleep deprivation via gentle handling. After this 5-hour period mice underwent another 30 trials to find the new escape location. Mice were allowed a maximum of 60 seconds to make an arm choice. Mice were not directed to the correct arm if they made an error. If mice made an error in arm choice they were caught in the incorrect arm for 20 seconds before being rescued. The inter-trial interval during Days 2 through 4 was 10 minutes. Mice were assigned randomly to either left or right arms at the beginning of training and the researcher was blind to sleep condition during screening. 2.5 Data Analysis Data were analyzed using SigmaPlot version 11.0. For normally distributed data (gain in portion of non-preferred paw reaches) analysis consisted of using a two-way repeated steps ANOVA with sleep group (SD vs. ad libitum sleep) as the between-subjects impartial variable and time (T5 vs. T24) as the within-subjects impartial variable. Post-hoc analyses were completed with Bonferonni correction. Because gain in total success rate was continuous but not normally distributed Wilcoxon signed rank tests were used SB590885 to draw comparisons across time within any sleep condition and across sleep conditions at any time point. P-values were adjusted for multiple comparisons. Because Y-maze reversal data was binary (mice scored a 1 for successfully reaching the escape platform and a 0 for not reaching the platform) and not normally distributed chi-square comparisons of proportions were completed for the sum of all screening SB590885 blocks. Correlation data was calculated using a simple linear regression model. Results were considered significant at p < 0.05. 3 Results 3.1 Sleep Imparts Gains in Motor Success Across Time That Are Not Achieved After Acute Sleep Deprivation After one week of prior acclimation to Rabbit polyclonal to AP3. the task using the preferred paw mice were given an initial training period using the non-preferred paw for the first time in the skilled reaching SB590885 task. There were no significant differences in overall SB590885 performance with the preferred paw either in the last three trials during the acclimation period (p = 0.23 Mann-Whitney rank sum test) or in performance during the first opportunity to use the non-preferred paw (p = 0.30 Mann-Whitney rank sum test) between mice subsequently sleep-deprived or not. We then examined the impact of 5 hours of.